You can become infected if you have contact with the blood of someone who is infected with HIV. Blood-borne infection with HIV can occur through:
If you inject drugs, the best thing to do is to use new or sterilized injection equipment every time. You can also take a daily medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to lower your risk of HIV.
Infection can pass from HIV positive pregnant women to their babies in the womb and during birth. Taking anti-HIV drugs during pregnancy and childbirth dramatically lowers the risk of a baby becoming infected with HIV.
After birth, transmission can occur through breast milk of infected women. The highest risk may be in the early months after birth. It is recommended that HIV-positive new mothers bottle-feed their babies rather than breast-feed.
If you are an HIV-positive woman and intend to become pregnant, or you find out that you are HIV positive during your pregnancy, talk to your doctor immediately about ways to minimize the chances that your baby will become infected, too.